展覽簡介
Introduction
 
  臺灣史前時代分為舊石器時代、新石器時代早期、新石器時代中期、新石器時代晚期、金屬器時代等5個主要時期,當時史前人們善用自然資源、精於工藝,發展出海陸長距離的物質交換與人群交流,激盪出多元豐富的文化內涵。臺灣現有10處史前時代的國定考古遺址,其中Blihun漢本考古遺址埋藏古代人群出海遠洋的故事,是解開人群流動的關鍵遺址。
 
 
 
展區介紹
About Exhibitions
 
 
 
Learning about the Ten National Archaeological Sites
十處國定考古遺址(統計至2021.5.31),包括史前時期不同文化層的人類活動,內涵各具特色,讓人看見史前人群的生活智慧。
 
 
 
Blihun Hanben in Transportation Hub
1.清領以來的東臺灣有「後山」之稱,原因之一是對外陸路交通不便,尤其宜蘭和花蓮之間在山崖天險阻絕下,往來更是困難。
2.19世紀末,為改善交通,清廷闢築翻山越嶺的軍用步道;日治時期改築為單線通行汽車的臨海道;戰後逐步修繕拓寬為風景壯麗的蘇花公路,加以北迴鐵路完工,大幅增進花蓮的對外交通;臺九線蘇花公路改善計畫則以長型隧道,提升道路安全性。
3.然而在陸路交通之前,居住在漢本的人群如何行進於蘇花之間?從Blihun漢本考古遺址的發掘,證實臺灣北部和東部之間,在1000多年前已密切往來,當時的人群可能利用海域做為交通動線。
4.漢本位處舟車之利,從史前至今,一直是一處海陸交通上重要的樞紐。
 
 
The Excavation of Blihun Hanben Archaeological Site
漢本考古遺址位於宜蘭縣南澳鄉澳花村,大致在漢本車站南側與和平溪北岸之間的緩坡上,東側緊鄰太平洋。2012.3.5於蘇花改工程谷風隧道南口發現疑似文化遺留後,開始文物搶救與文化保存工作,2016.8.15獲指定公告為國定遺址,2017.11.17重新公告為國定考古遺址,公告面積約88,900平方公尺,為規模相當大的史前聚落。
 
 
社會文化 Social Culture
聚 落 The Settlement
Blihun漢本村落座落在和平溪出海口北側危崖下方崩積的緩坡上,南北走向的家戶沿著海岸線櫛比鱗次地排列,整個聚落南北長約450公尺、寬約150公尺,面積約60,000平方公尺。家戶與家戶間以疊石駁坎相隔,這些駁坎也是聚落間的通道,駁坎內側常用立板圍出排水溝渠。每個家戶由家屋跟前埕組成,前埕有時以石板舖面,家屋地面則敷設厚層黏土,地面下則有埋葬去世家人的石板葬室。由於不見作為樑柱及屋頂的石材或石板,因此推測家屋是以茅草、木材等有機材質建造而成。
 
島內互動 Interactions within Taiwan
17世紀荷西文獻提及,當時北海岸與蘇花海岸的住民使用著相同的語言。而且在臺灣北部、東北部及東部等不同族群的村落中,都流傳著一則相同的「Sanasai傳說」,這反映這一地區族群間的高度互動性。在考古遺留中,以拍印紋為特色的陶器以及其它相同型制、風格的器物在北海岸及東部流傳,反映了這些地區頻繁的交換及互動關係。
 
島外交易 Off-island Interactions
受到東亞及南亞週期季風的影響,南海及印度洋沿岸很早就發展出風帆式海上交換脈絡,隨著印度、波斯、阿拉伯等文明興起,海上絲路逐漸成形。自鐵器時代開始或更早,臺灣與菲律賓也成為海上絲路的節點。Blihun漢本考古遺址出土銅幣、玻璃、瓷器、瑪瑙等,可能藉由這一網絡傳入。
 
物質文化 Material Culture
生態資源 Ecological Resources
Blihun漢本考古遺址背倚陡峭危崖,面向浩瀚大洋,看似窮山惡水,實則資源豐饒:近海因黑潮流經,帶來大量海洋資源,背後的高山面迎東北季風,森林茂密,動物生態多樣而豐富。這裡也是臺灣最古老的地層,劇烈的構造運動造就出各式帶有含鐵礦物的高度變質岩石,而岩層裂縫則充填含金的礦脈。這些岩石、礦物隨著河流攜至河口而為先民得以輕易所取用。
 
生計型態 Subsistence
雖然遺址中少見植物遺留,但動物資源豐富。海洋資源中,以中大型魚類如鬼頭刀、鯊魚等為主;陸域動物則以鹿、豬數量最多。遺址中出土各類材質的魚鉤、槍頭、箭頭等,應是當時漁獵所使用的工具。
 
石器工藝 Lithic Technology
高度變質的各類岩石是先民製作石器的良好素材,堅硬的變質火成岩最常被作為鍛錘,片狀的板岩則被作為箭鏃,堅韌的閃玉則是製作成木作工具的錛或鑿。最特別的是利用本地的大理岩製作成各式的裝飾品。
 
骨貝角牙器工藝 Bone, Antler, Tooth and Shell Technologies
海、陸等動物資源不僅作為食物,動物身上的硬組織也常因特殊成分或外形等因素,被加工為工具或裝飾品。比如硨磲、芋螺加工為貝環;獸類長骨或鹿角加工為工具或握柄;犬齒、鮫鯊利齒因具有勇猛象徵,常被作為綴飾。
 
陶器工藝 Pottery Technology
Blihun漢本先民在製作陶器時,會用刻有幾何圖案的拍板,在陶器器身拍印出繁複的圖案,這一風格是臺灣北部地區金屬器時代的特色。除此之外,這裡製作的陶器器壁多偏薄,顯示高超的製陶工藝。
 
高溫工藝 Pyrotechnology
金屬玻璃的製作包含原料提煉及塑造成形,兩者都需在高溫環境中操作。Blihun漢本先民已具有相當程度的高溫技術。其中黃金因活性低而多以元素狀態存在,銅及玻璃則可由外地交換取得,這些物品只要熔融重塑即可。但鐵砂因多為氧化物,必須經過塊煉法提煉出海綿鐵後再鍛打成形,鍛爐應是鍛鐵成形或熔鑄其它原料時加熱的設施。
 
精神文化 Spiritual Culture
埋葬習俗 Burial Customs
Blihun漢本先民可能相信靈魂的存在,即使親人過世了,仍然住在家中,因此會把親人遺骸放在家屋中由板岩組成的葬室內,葬室可以放置多個親人,遺骸則包覆成側身屈肢的姿勢。亡者身上可能配戴飾品,身旁放置陶罐或生前使用的工具。
 
具象藝術 Figurative Arts
早在新石器時代臺灣就已出現了簡單的具象物件,進入金屬器時代,具象主題更為多樣繁複,除了出現輪廓明確的人形面部,另外也有陶塑及板岩打剝的動物偶像以及刻著蛇形紋飾的石器及骨器。
 
身體裝飾 Body Ornaments
Blihun漢本先民身上佩戴的飾品不僅材質多樣且種類繁複,包含佩戴於手臂的貝環、玻璃環、板岩及大理岩石環;作為耳飾的玻璃玦飾;作為綴飾的玻璃珠、大理岩珠、玉髓珠、玉管珠、青銅鈴、大理岩圓盤、貝珠、貝片等,另外還有金箔。由墓葬出土的脈絡來看,部分應是縫綴於衣裳上。
 

Preliminary Results of the Excavation of Blihun Hanben Archaeological Site

Social Culture
The Settlement
Blihun Hanben village located on the accumulated gentle slope under the cliff of the north of the mouth of Heping River. The houses in the direction of north and south were constructed along the coast and join closely together. The whole length of the settlement was around 450m, the width was 150m, and the square measure was around 60,000m2. Stones were piled to separate the houses from each other. The partitions were the passages among the settlements. In the partitions, they often constructed the drains by standing boards. The family area could be divided into houses and front yards which were sometimes covered by slates. The floors of houses were covered with filtered thick-layered clay. There was a slate coffin for the deceased family members under the ground of the house. With the absence of stones or slates for beam-columns and roofs, it is inferred that the houses were constructed by organic materials such as twitch grass and wood.
 
Interactions within Taiwan
According to the Dutch and Spanish literatures in the 17th century, the residents at northern coast and Suhua coast used the same language at the time. In different tribal villages of northern, northeastern and eastern Taiwan, they shared the same legend of Sanasai which reflected a high degree of interaction among the peoples in the area. In archaeological remains, Pai Ying pattern pottery and other utensils with the same model and style were shown in the northern coast and eastern Taiwan. The phenomenon reveals the frequent exchange and interaction of the area.
 
Off-island Interactions
Influenced by the regular monsoon in East Asia and South Asia, sailboat marine exchange has been developed along the coasts of the South China Sea and the Indian Ocean. With the rise of Indian, Persian, Arabian civilization, the maritime silk road was successively constructed. From the Iron Age or even at an earlier time, Taiwan and the Philippines were included as the nodes of the maritime silk road.The unearthed copper coins, glass, porcelain and agate at Blihun Hanben archaeological site might be introduced by the previously-named network.
 
Material Culture
Ecological Resources
Blihun Hanben archaeological site shows a steep cliff at the back and faces the vast ocean. The environment seems to be dangerous; however, the resources are abundant. Kuroshio Current passes through the area near open seas and results in plenty of oceanic resources. The mountains behind face the northeast monsoon.The forests are dense and the animals are diverse and numerous. It is the most ancient stratum in Taiwan. The violent tectonic movements resulted in diverse and highly metamorphic stone with iron. The rifts among the rock are filled with the mineral vein of gold. The rock and minerals were used by the ancestors after being brought to the mouth by the rivers.
 
Subsistence
At the archaeological site , vegetal remains are rare. However, animal resources are abundant. Among the marine resources, there are medium and large fish such as dolphin fish and sharks; as to land animals, most of them are deer and pigs. Different materials of fishhook and spear were unearthed at the site and suspected to be the tools used for hunting and fishing at the time.
 
Lithic Technology
Different types of highly metamorphic rocks were the best materials for the ancestors to make stone implements. Hard metamorphic igneous rocks were commonly made as forging hammers. Sheet slates were made as arrowheads. Resistant nephrites were made as adzes for wood tools. Noticeably, they used local marble to make various ornaments.
 
Bone, Antler, Tooth and Shell Technologies
Animals in the sea and on the land were served as food. In addition, animals’ hard tissues, according to the special materials and forms, were manufactured into tools or ornaments. For instance, giant clams and geography cones were manufactured into shell bracelets; long bones of beasts or deer horns were manufactured into tools or handles; canine teeth and sharp teeth of squalene symbolized bravery and were often used for decorations.
 
Pottery Technology
When Blihun Hanben ancestors made pottery, they hit and printed complicated patterns on the pottery by the boards with geometric motifs. The style was the characteristic of Metal Age in northern Taiwan. In addition, the ceramic works made at the site were mostly thin showing the sophisticated ceramic craft.
 
Pyrotechnology
Making of metal glass includes the refinement of raw materials and modeling which should be practiced in a high-temperature environment. Blihun Hanben ancestors had shown a certain degree of high-temperature technology. Among others, gold with low activity existed in the state of elements. Copper and glass could have been obtained through external exchanges. The items could be re-modeled by fusion. However, pellets were mostly oxide and required refinement to obtain sponge iron by block refinement and then modeled by forging. The forge should be the heating device to forge the iron or fuse other materials.
 
Spiritual Culture
Burial Customs
Blihun Hanben ancestors might believe in the existence of soul. Even though the relatives were deceased, they still lived in the houses. Thus, they placed the relatives’ corpses in the burial rooms made by slates in the houses. Several relatives could be placed in the burial rooms. The corpses were covered with bodies turned aside and limbs folded. The dead might wear ornaments. The pottery pots or the tools they used when they were alive were placed besides their bodies.
 
Figurative Arts
In Neolithic Age in Taiwan, simple figurative objects had appeared. In Metal Age, the figurative topics were more diverse and complicated. There were not only the human faces with specific outlines, but also the ceramic and slate animal idols and stone and bone implements with snake patterns.
 
Body Ornaments
Blihun Hanben ancestors’ ornaments worn on the bodies include various materials and types, shell bracelets, glass rings, slate and marble rings, glass earrings, glass beads, marble beads, carnelian beads, jade tube beads, copper bells, marble plate, shell beads, shell sheets, as well as gold foil. According to the unearth situation of the tombs, some of them were sewed on the clothing.

 

 
 
參觀資訊
Visiting Info
展覽日期
  2021年7月26日 - 11月28日
展覽時間
  9:00 - 17:00 (8/2起週一休館)
展覽地點
 
文化部文化資產園區
B03藝文展覽館 (臺中市南區復興路三段362號)
配合政府防疫政策,參觀前請先確認展場開放時間
 
DATE
  July 26 - November 28, 2021
OPENING HOURS
  09:00-17:00(Closed on Mondays)
VENUE
  Cultural Heritage Park, Ministry of Culture Art and Culture Exhibition Hall
(No.362, Sec. 3,Fuxing Rd.,South Dist.,Taichung City 40247,Taiwan(R.O.C)
 
 

Please cooperate the COVID-19 Prevention Policy, and recheck the opening hours before visiting.

 

 
 
地理位址
 
 
交通資訊
 

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路線
國道1號:臺中交流道(里程178)▸往臺中▸臺灣大道,往市區方向(右轉)▸五權路(臺1乙線)▸過地下道 (左轉)▸復興路三段抵達園區,位於右側。
路線
國道3號:大里交流道(里程209)▸連接臺63線(中投快速公路)直行▸五權南路(右轉)▸復興路三段抵達園區,位於右側。
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